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General Information

Basic Water & Wastewater Formulas


Tech Brief: Basic Water and Wastewater Formulas - Operators obtaining or maintaining their certification must be able to calculate complex formulasand conversion factors. This Tech Brief provides basic examples of these formulas and conversion factors.

Tech Brief: Sanitary Surveys - A sanitary survey is an inspection of the entire water system, including the water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance. Usually conducted by a member of the state primacy agency, the purpose of these mandatory surveys is to help prevent and correct water system deficiencies.

Tech Brief: Simultaneous Compliance with Drinking Water Regulations - Certain U.S. drinking water regulations—in particular the Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rules and the Long-Term 1 and 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rules—have the potential to conflict with each other, as well as with other regulations such as the Lead and Copper Rule and the Total Coliform Rule. This means that small system operators cannot simply comply with these mandates individually, but must consider how changing their treatment process to meet one rule might affect compliance with other rules. This Tech Brief provides information and strategies to effectively comply with those regulations that are most likely to conflict with one another.

Fact Sheet: Water Conservation Measures - This fact sheet considers the role of water conservation as an integral part of long-term resource planning.

Tech Brief: Source Water Protection - Because source water protection means cleaner water that needs less treatment, drinking water systems should put source water protection at the top of their “to do” lists. Whether your source water is surface or groundwater, all drinking water sources are vulnerable to a variety of contaminants from a variety of activities. This Tech Brief discusses some possible contamination sources and feasible ways to address them.

Converting Laboratory Units into Consumer Confidence Report UnitsFact sheet designed to assist community water system personnel with unit conversion of laboratory results for CCR reporting.

Best Practices Factsheet: Consumer Confidence Report Guide to assist community water system personnel with the development of an easy-to-understand CCR for the general public.

Protect Your Water for Life: Vulnerability Assessment Fact SheetBasic guide to help water system personnel evaluate susceptibility to potential threats and identify corrective actions to reduce or mitigate risks.

Talking To Your Decision Makers: A Best Practices GuideBrief guide highlighting the importance and how to effectively communicate drinking water system needs to local officials/decision-makers.

Water System Operator Roles and Responsibilities: A Best Practices GuideReference guide detailing the important roles and responsibilities of drinking water operators and system owners serving <10,000 to provide safe water.

Improving Security through Capacity Development: Capacity Self-Assessments Brochure focuses on how personnel operating drinking water systems serving < 3,300 can use cappacity development self-assessment tools to address security vulnerabilities and plan for emergency situations.

Asset Management: A Best Practices Guide - Brief guide for water system personnel and decision-makers to begin developing an asset management plan looking at five core questions that leads to best practices managing your system's assets.

Record Keeping Rules: A Quick Reference GuideQuick reference guide explaining importance of keeping good records, what records to keep, and for how long records should be kept concerning your drinking water system.

Consumer Confidence Report Rule: A Quick Reference Guide - Quick reference guide about CCRS summarizing federal drinking water requirements and how to communicate the information to your customer base.