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Community Involvement in Drinking Water Source Assessments
US Environmental Protection Agency
By working with their state's source water protection program, community groups can help identify potential threats to their drinking water. They can also help local officials develop and implement a plan of action to prevent water quality problems. This fact sheet explains the four steps of source water assessments and how communities can participate in the process. It also describes how communities can use assessment information to protect local water sources.
(General Public, Health officials, Local Officials, and Managers)
DWFSGN53/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2000)

Compendium of Tools for Watershed Assessment and TMDL Development
US Environmental Protection Agency
This book summarizes various models and tools that can be used in water quality planning and pollution control to support watershed assessment and to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Three major categories of models are discussed: watershed loading, receiving water, and ecological assessment. The book includes a wide range of tools and offers selection criteria to assist the user in choosing the model(s) appropriate for a particular application.
(Local Officials, Planners, State Officials, State Regulatory Agencies)
WWBKGN96/Book: 229 pp. (1997)

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Cuyahoga Board of Health Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program Grant
Cuyahoga County Board of Health
In April 2002, The Cuyahoga County Board of Health began work on a grant from Ohio's Department of Natural Resources. The goal of this project was to reduce the contamination within the Lake Erie watershed that emanates from inadequate household sewage treatment systems and to help assess water quality in the Chagrin river and surrounding watershed. The project consisted of sampling for fecal coliform, macro invertebrates and water quality. Educational outreach and dissemination of results were also part of the project. This brochure summarizes the grant project.
(Local Officials, Planners, Managers, General Public, State Officials, State Regulatory Agencies, Public Health Officials)
WWBLGN267/Booklet: 12 pp. (N/A)

Demonstration of Innovative Treatment and Disposal Systems in the Former Coal-Mining Town of Burnett, Washington
National Onsite Demonstration Program; WOSSA
This report outlines NODP activities in Burnett, Washington. With a grant from the NODP II, Washington State Department of Health, as well as substantial volunteer efforts and donations, 14 malfunctioning systems were rebuilt using alternative wastewater technologies, including:

Each system summary discusses the site, system installation, key treatment objectives, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and cost, and includes a diagram of the system. The report also summarizes public education efforts, lessons learned from the program, and the ordinances passed.
(Engineers, Researchers, State Regulatory Agencies, Local Officials, General Public, Planners, Managers, Public Health Officials, Finance Officers, Contractors/Developers)
DPBLGN06/Booklet: 18 pp. (2001)

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Demonstration of Innovative Treatment and Disposal Technologies in Environmentally Sensitive Karst Terrain Near Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Missouri
National Onsite Demonstration Program, University of Missouri Biological and Agricultural Engineering
This report outlines activities of a Rock Bridge, Missouri, project funded by an NODP II grant. Based on site limitations and needs, five failing conventional systems in the area were retrofitted with alternative technologies, including:


Each system summary discusses the site, system installation, key treatment objectives, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and cost, and includes a diagram of the system. The report also summarizes public education efforts, lessons learned from the program, and the ordinances that were passed.
(Engineers, Local Officials, General Public, Finance Officers, Contractors/Developers, Researchers, State Regulatory Agencies, Planners, Public Health Officials)
DPBLGN04/Booklet: 10 pp. (2001)



Demonstration of Innovative Onsite Wastewater Systems in the Green Hill Pond Watershed of Rhode Island
National Onsite Demonstration Program; University of Rhode Island; and RI Onsite Wastewater Training Program
This report outlines the activities of Green Hill Pond watershed, one of six communities that participated in NODP II. With a grant from the NODP II and other partners, seven failing systems were retrofitted with alternative wastewater technologies, including:

Each system summary discusses the site, system installation, key treatment objectives, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and cost, and includes a diagram of the system. The report also summarizes public education efforts, lessons learned from the program, and the ordinances that were passed.
(Engineers, Researchers, State Regulatory Agencies, Local Officials, Planners, Public Health Officials, State Officials, Contractors/Developers, General Public, Finance Officers)
DPBLGN02/Booklet: 14 pp. (2001)

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Innovative Technology and Management District Demonstration in an Impaired Watershed in Southern Pennsylvania
National Onsite Demonstration Program; and Southern Alleghany Conservancy
This report outlines activities of a Centerville, Pennsylvania, project funded by an NODP II grant. Originally intended to demonstrate one alternative cluster system, this project evolved into a comprehensive wastewater treatment and management plan for the entire town. It included three major activities:

Each system summary discusses the site, system installation, key treatment objectives, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and cost, and includes a diagram of the system. The report also summarizes public education efforts, lessons learned from the program, and the ordinances that were passed. (Engineers, Contractors/Developers, General Public, Local Officials, Researchers, State Regulatory Agencies, Managers, Planners, Public Health Officials, Finance Officers)
DPBLGN03/Booklet: 10 pp. (2001)



National Onsite Wastewater Treatment: A NSFC Summary of Onsite Systems in the United States, 1993
National Small Flows Clearinghouse
This book reports on the status of onsite systems in 1993 throughout the U.S. The information was compiled state-by-state from health departments and regulatory agencies dealing with wastewater issues. The book provides data on the reasons for system failure, permit information, cost of various onsite systems, and who has responsibility for onsite system maintenance. (Contractors/Developers, Engineers, General Public, Public Health Officials, State Regulatory Agencies, State Officials, Researchers)
SFBKHD01/Book: 407 pp. (1996)

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Nonpoint Pointers: Understanding and Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Your Community
US Environmental Protection Agency
This package contains 11 EPA documents that discuss the different types of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution and how to identify and manage them. Also discussed are community involvement activities (volunteer monitoring of rivers, lakes, and coastal waters); federal control programs; and the use of wetlands to manage NPS.
(General Public, State Regulatory Agencies, Local Officials, Public Health Officials, State Officials)
WWPKGN86/Package: 22 pp. (1996)

Overview of Onsite Technologies
National Onsite Demonstration Program
The objective of this interactive CD-ROM is to introduce various types of available onsite wastewater technologies. The technologies and topics described here include aeration treatment units, disinfection (chlorine, ozone and ultraviolet), filters (intermittent sand, trickling, and recirculating sand), composting toilet systems, evapotranspiration systems, fine bubble aeration, low-pressure pipe systems, mound systems, septage management, and water efficiency. Tables, diagrams, and illustrations complement the text and can be printed or downloaded.  By clicking on a technology category icon, one can read a list of options along with a brief introduction to the particular technology. The list of options provides an overview of the topic with information such as process description, advantages and disadvantages of the system, its performance, application, operation and maintenance, siting and design, and cost. The section on water efficiency discusses conservation, efficiency measure, and engineering and behavioral practices. The information here is non-technical and should be easy to understand by all community audiences, both lay and professional. It should be of particular interest to wastewater professionals interested in educating homeowners about innovative onsite wastewater technologies or homeowners who want to know more about onsite systems. (Local Officials, General Public, Planners, Managers, Public Health Officials, Contractors/Developers)
DPCDGN13/CD-ROM (2002)

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Protecting Your Ground Water Supply
West Virginia University
This video highlights the lessons learned by 13 demonstration projects in EPA Region 5.  The video discusses ground water or drinking water protection. 80% of all groundwater is used for drinking water.

Common Questions include:
1. Where does the water come from
2. What human activities can contaminate the water source
3. What steps can the community take to prevent groundwater contamination
4. How can a community obtain public support for its wellhead protection

Wellhead protection has four common pieces.  These pieces are:
1. Delineation – size and location of are that provides water to the wellhead.
2. Source Inventory – identification of all sources of contamination in the delineated area
3. Wellhead Protection Management
4. Education and Outreach

Common Themes:
1. Involve everyone from the beginning
2. Take advantage of the existing resources
3. Value the community
(Local Officials, Managers)
TRVTGN14/Video: 27 min. (1996)

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Repair of Failing Onsite Wastewater Systems
Mississippi State Department of Health, Bureau of General Environmental Services, Division of Onsite Wastewater
In recent years, the potential for groundwater and surface water pollution from individual onsite wastewater disposal systems has emerged as a serious concern in the US. Proper repair of these malfunctioning sewage systems is essential. This resource manual, produced by the Mississippi State Department of Health, is intended to illustrate best management practices. It describes problems and specific malfunctions of existing systems, and recommends repair options used to overcome specific soils and site conditions.
(Contractors, Developers, Planners, Local Officials, General Public, Public Health Officials)
WWBKGN275/Book: 61pp. (2002)

Sanitary Situation Survey: Individual Housing Unit Response Form
National Onsite Demonstration Program
This survey form is part of a broader community assessment program to determine wastewater treatment needs. To help determine these needs, it asks questions pertinent to home ownership, dwelling size, drinking water source, and type of sewage disposal system. Local officials and others who might be involved in a community-wide assessment of water and wastewater needs could use the form to gather this information. There is another survey, Sanitary Situation Survey: Individual Lot Assessment, item # DPFSGN15, which could be used in conjunction with this form.
(Local Officials, General Public, Planners, Managers, Public Health Officials)
DPFSGN14/Fact Sheet: 1 pp. (2003)

Sanitary Situation Survey: Individual Lot Assessment
National Onsite Demonstration Program
This survey form is part of a broader community assessment to determine wastewater treatment needs. To help determine these needs, it asks questions pertinent to dwelling size, topography, hydrogeology and soils, and water usage. Local officials and others who might be involved in a community-wide assessment of water and wastewater needs could use the form to gather this information. The Sanitary Situation Survey: Individual Housing Unit Responses Form, item # DPFSGN14, could be used in conjunction with this form.
(Local Officials, General Public, Planners, Managers, Public Health Officials)
DPFSGN15/Fact Sheet: 2 pp. (2003)

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Septic Systems, Soils, and Groundwater Protection
Cornell Cooperative Extension
This booklet discusses basic background information about septic systems and their environmental effects. The characteristics of raw sewage and septic tank effluent are discussed in detail along with potential public or environmental health concerns. 
(General Public, Planners, Managers, Local Officials, State Officials, Public Health Officials, Contractors/Developers)
WWBLGN261/Booklet: 16 pp. (N/A)

Wellhead Protection: An ounce of prevention...
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Wellhead protection planning is one way to ensure your community has a long-term source of clean water. This illustrated brochure outlines a four-step wellhead protection strategy and the reasons for taking this preventive action before problems with groundwater may occur.
(Public Health Officials, Local Officials, General Public, Health officials, Commissioners, Planners, Managers)
DWBRGN57/Brochure: 2 pp. (1999)

Why Do Septic Systems Malfunction?
The Ohio State University Extension
This fact sheet discusses the signs of septic system malfunction and makes a distinction between malfunction and failure (i.e., failure is when a system cannot be fixed to bring it back into compliance). Three reasons for system failure are noted, along with ways the property owner can avoid system failure. This fact sheet could be a good tool for community or public education. (Researchers, Local Officials, General Public, Planners, Managers, Public Health Officials, Contractors/Developers)
WWFSGN205/Fact Sheet: 2 pp. (2000)

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