Other States:
OHIO
Population: 11,353,140

Information on the state of Ohio is available for the following topics. To review this information, click on the links below.

Contacts| Regulations, Statutes & State Codes | Quick Facts | Septic Stats

Onsite Demonstration Programs | Onsite Management Communities

 

 

Contacts:
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Rebecca Petty, Administrator-BLEHS, or
Jean Caudill, or
Tom Grigsby
Residential Water and Sewage Program
Ohio Department of Health
PO Box 118
5th Floor-BLEHS
246 North High Street
Columbus, Ohio 43216-0118
(614) 466-1390
(614) 466-4556 (fax)

rpetty@gw.odh.state.oh.us

jcaudill@gw.odh.state.oh.us

tgrigsby@gw.odh.state.oh.us

http://www.odh.state.oh.us/ODHPrograms/SEWAGE/sewrules.htm

 

Regulations, Statutes & State Codes:
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Ohio State Regulations

Ohio Constitutions, Statutes and Codes

Household Sewage Disposal Rules
Ohio Administrative Code Chapter 3701-29
July 1977

Onsite regulations for Ohio were last amended in July 1977. Ohio Revised Code 119.032 requires that all rules (Ohio Administrative Code) be reviewed at least once every five (5) years. A comprehensive revision is underway, but is unlikely to be adopted by July 31, 2002. The Web site (above) provides a link to the current draft rule package (Version 3 Draft).

No existing list of approved technologies is available. Conventional systems in the Ohio 1977 rules include leaching trenches, leaching pit, subsurface sand filter, and aerobic type treatment systems. Some special device approvals have been given for other types of pretreatment units, but most of these are used in experimental system programs within local health districts. Only mounds have been approved statewide under the experimental system variance provision in the 1977 rules. All other experimental systems are used in a limited number of local health districts. These systems include drip distribution, modified mounds, at-grade beds, etc., many of which are preceded by manufactured/proprietary pretreatment units. The variance provision in Rule 20 provides the means for use of other technologies.

Surface discharge is an option for onsite septic disposal systems. The 1977 Rules allow ATUs and subsurface, single-pass sand filters. No change other than a draft NPDES General HSTS Permit has been issued for comment by the Ohio EPA. Household surface discharging systems are not yet covered under NPDES in Ohio.

Currently, OEPA would be the permitting agency, but the agency has not issued any NPDES permits for these household systems to date. Ohio is in the process of developing a general NPDES permit for discharging household systems. OEPA must issue the permit, but ODH and local health districts will implement the process.

Ohio Code does not allow for drainfield area/size reduction, but ODH guidance has allowed a one-third reduction for drainfields preceded by secondary treatment. Under the experimental variance provision, sizing reductions have been approved in a few counties for chamber systems if adequate soil conditions exist.

A funding program exists to assist homeowners either replacing a failing system or installing a new one. Questions may be directed to Pejmaan Fallah at the Ohio EPA or at (614) 644-3666, (614) 644-3687 (fax), or email to pejmaan.fallah@epa.state.oh.us

Onsite wastewater demonstration, research, and testing are ongoing in three (3) areas:

1. Modified Mounds
Ralph Benson, R.S.
Clermont County General Health District
2275 Bauer Road
Batavia, OH 45103
(513) 732-7603
(513) 732-7936 (fax)
rbenson@co.clermont.oh.us

2. Drip Distribution
Laura Kramer Kuns, R.S.
Lake County General Health District
33 Mill Street
Painesville, OH 44077
(440) 350-2551
(440) 350-2548
lkuns@lcghd.org

3. Wetlands
Jim Boddy
Lorain County
General Health District
9880 S. Murray Ridge Road
Elyria, OH 44035
(440) 284-3224
(440) 322-0911
jjboddyrs@compuserve.com

Ohio State Code requires management programs/contracts or management districts to monitor and maintain onsite systems or individual liquid waste systems. Operation permits are required, but most local health departments (LHD) do not implement them. LHDs who do implement operation permits do so only for aerobic treatment units (ATUs). If draft rules are finalized, there may be language requiring operation permits and monitoring frequencies for all systems permitted under new rules (not for all existing systems). Local agencies have authority to adopt/require maintenance/management programs, and at least 30 of Ohio's 143 local health districts do. These standards must be stricter than state standards. Questions may be directed to Caudill (above).

The state tracks permits issued for new construction and system replacement for Ohio EPA (non-residential) systems, but not for household systems statewide; however, local health districts do.

The state of Ohio generally considers a failed system one for which there is surfacing effluent that is an obvious public health nuisance, but groundwater effects are also a growing concern. The most common reason for system failure is related to improper system siting in addition to construction and maintenance issues. ODH is just beginning a 319 funded study to evaluate the siting and performance of soil absorption systems in Ohio.

Ohio does not have a licensing/certification program for onsite wastewater professionals, but the Ohio Onsite Wastewater Association (OOWA) is in the early stages of considering a voluntary Installer Certification Program. There is also no licensing/certification of individuals to perform site evaluations/inspections, but the Ohio Association of Pedologists (OAP) has established a soil scientist certification program that may help to bring more professional expertise into the site evaluation process.

Information pertinent to municipal wastewater regulations may be obtained from:

Paul Novak
Ohio EPA
Surface Water Division
Lazarus Government Center
PO Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43216-1049
(614) 644-2035
(614) 644-2745 (fax)
paul.novak@epa.state.oh.us

 

Quick Facts:
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Total number of onsite systems: 1.2 million; 1990 U.S. census reports about 950,000.
Number of new systems installed each year: 10,000-12,000.
Failure definition: Plumbing backup or breakout of effluent.
Number or proportion of systems presently failing: 25-30%.
Number or proportion repaired annually: 2000-3000.
Number or proportion replaced annually: 2000+.
Number or proportion of repairs or replacements that require alternative technology (e.g.,
sand filters, pressure dosing):
Hard numbers are NA, but it is reported that most replacements
are conventional, with some use of aerobic systems.
Number or proportion of repairs or replacements that require advanced technology (e.g.,
disinfection, nutrient removal):
Very few if any.
Cost of a conventional septic system installation: $6000, range; $1500-$20,000.
Cost of a centralized sewer tie-in (including fees and cost of the sewer lateral): $3000-$15,000.

 

Septic Stats:
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TOTAL PERSONS TOTAL HOUSING UNITS PUBLIC SYSTEM DRILLED WELL DUG WELL OTHER SOURCE PUBLIC SEWER SEPTIC TANK OTHER MEANS
OHIO 10,847,115 4,371,945 3,603,499 644,790 63,096 60,560 3,392,785 940,943 38,217
COUNTIES
ADAMS 25,371 10,237 7,539 1,293 535 870 4,056 5,443 739
ALLEN 109,755 42,758 30,990 11,185 521 62 33,615 8,850 293
ASHLAND 47,507 18,139.00 11,567 5,476 429 667 10,145 7,606 388
ASHTABULA 99,821 41,214 29,060 9,180 2,338 636 24,008 16,797 409
ATHENS 59,549 21,737 18,824 1,280 793 840 10,384 10,614 739
AUGNAIZE 44,585 16,907 11,352 5,273 271 11 11,599 5,127 181
BELMONT 71,074 30,575 26,679 2,701 474 721 18,483 11,699 393
BROWN 34,966 13,720 11,515 330 701 1,174 4,657 8,626 437
BUTLER 291,479 110,353 103,530 5,303 828 692 91,541 18,345 467
CARROLL 26,521 11,536 3,911 6,458 440 727 4,618 6,608 310
CHAMPAIGN 36019 14030 7443 6242 290 55 7041 6755 234
CLARK 147548 58377 42565 14775 895 142 40521 17439 417
CLERMONT 150187 55315 50149 954 534 3678 36782 17557 976
CLINTON 35415 13740 10020 2714 688 318 7542 6040 158
COLUMBIANA 108276 44035 25807 16411 1066 751 23446 20134 455
COSHOCTON 35427 14964 7486 5328 477 1673 6979 7601 384
CRAWFORD 47870 19514 13881 4468 798 367 13211 6098 205
CUYAHOGA 1412140 604538 599270 4438 463 367 585394 18168 976
DARKE 53619 20338 9611 10021 630 76 9294 10737 307
DEFIANCE 39350 14737 9532 3821 273 1111 9099 5502 136
DELAWARE 66929 24377 19453 4086 329 509 13167 10918 292
ERIE 76779 32827 28164 2576 899 1188 24691 7805 331
FAIRFIELD 103461 39014 24177 13814 618 405 24550 13937 527
FAYETTE 27466 10816 6734 3686 385 11 6577 4118 121
FRANKLIN 961437 405418 388035 15937 1158 288 385173 19114 1131
FULTON 38498 14095 7625 4743 1326 401 7013 6816 266
GALLIA 30954 12564 10721 1021 335 487 3778 8359 427
GEAUGA 81129 27922 5187 21092 1259 384 6957 20054 911
GREENE 136731 50238 39098 10282 687 171 41098 8946 194
GUERNSEY 39024 17262 12080 3445 567 1170 8247 8651 364
HAMILTON 866228 361421 356443 1826 361 2791 337745 21588 2088
HANCOCK 65536 26107 19489 6389 163 66 19271 6709 127
HARDIN 31111 11976 7459 4309 189 19 6960 4780 236
HARRISON 16085 7301 3900 2258 384 759 2727 4177 397
HENRY 29108 11000 6239 3642 576 543 5784 5060 156
HIGHLAND 35728 14842 11001 2532 743 566 6112 8354 376
HOCKING 25533 10481 4302 5082 483 614 3744 6302 435
HOLMES 32849 10007 2943 5769 250 1045 2032 7474 501
HURON 56240 21382 14701 4391 1102 1188 12809 8300 273
JACKSON 30230 12452 9595 1595 717 545 6428 5499 525
JEFFERSON 80298 33911 27372 5224 533 782 22583 10858 470
KNOX 47473 18508 9904 7712 439 453 9839 8451 218
LAKE 215499 83194 77175 4042 1684 293 69870 13189 135
LAWRENCE 61834 24788 19588 3694 824 682 14644 9363 781
LUCKING 128300 50032 29368 18968 902 794 28224 21040 768
LAGAN 42310 19473 9863 9031 497 82 12361 6930 182
LORAIN 271126 99937 95681 2107 884 1265 79878 19503 556
LUCAS 462361 191388 181016 8328 1763 281 177253 13638 497
MADISON 37068 12621 7308 4863 370 80 6565 5786 270
MAHONING 264806 107915 93679 12741 1014 481 91283 15789 843
MARION 64274 25149 17556 6700 801 92 17671 7319 159
MEDINA 122354 43330 30783 8940 593 3014 29416 13584 330
MEGS 22987 9795 7329 1507 399 560 3145 6093 557
MERCER 39443 14969 8602 5920 270 177 9444 5391 134
MIAMI 93182 35985 24154 11140 556 135 23501 12226 258
MONROE 15497 6567 3749 1585 569 664 1619 4447 501
MONTGOMERY 573809 240820 228788 10782 1022 228 225690 14510 620
MORGAN 14194 6681 2269 1912 695 1804 1670 4481 530
MORROW 27749 10312 2320 6970 753 269 2262 7893 157
MUSKINGUM 82068 33029 23787 7109 943 1190 18818 13562 649
NOBLE 11336 4998 2368 876 587 1167 944 3663 391
OTTAWA 40029 23340 12379 8950 441 1570 12104 10146 1090
PAULDING 20488 7951 3036 4123 280 512 2868 4932 151
PERRY 31557 12260 6659 3674 520 1407 4812 7073 375
PICKAWAY 48255 16385 8615 6576 1043 151 8083 7994 308
PIKE 24249 9722 7041 1080 1059 542 3654 5603 465
PORTAGE 142585 52299 28083 22079 1348 789 31155 20670 474
PREBLE 40113 15174 8021 6331 698 124 6989 7984 201
PUTNAM 33819 11600 5191 5952 286 171 4874 6630 96
RICHLAND 126137 50350 34881 13999 969 501 34056 15957 337
ROSS 69330 26173 19031 4735 1410 997 13332 12149 692
SANDUSKY 61963 23753 14159 8321 516 757 15537 8035 181
SCIOTO 80327 32408 30155 1133 767 353 17489 14150 769
SENECA 59733 22473 13705 7746 443 579 13220 8934 319
SHELBY 44915 16509 9691 6430 311 77 9668 6545 296
STARK 367585 146910 101911 42415 2196 388 110674 35628 608
SUMMIT 514990 211477 169820 38667 2093 897 177387 33567 523
TRUMBULL 227813 90533 67620 20875 1495 543 63384 26492 657
TUSCARAWAS 84090 33982 23133 9080 562 1207 23511 10152 319
UNION 31969 11599 5452 5504 310 333 5451 5964 184
VAN-WERT 30464 11998 7411 4389 162 36 6803 5092 103
VINTON 11098 4856 1813 2185 577 281 933 3479 444
WARREN 113909 40636 32607 4894 949 2186 26414 13771 451
WASHINGTON 62254 25752 18741 3856 930 2225 13235 11901 616
WAYNE 101461 37036 20313 15525 617 581 20370 15990 676
WILLIAMS 36956 14745 8481 5941 175 148 8164 6317 264
WOOD 113269 41760 29891 10773 694 402 30509 11002 249
WYANDOT 22254 8596 4923 3279 172 222 4152 4363 81

 

Onsite Demonstration Programs:
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Ohio State University is doing some field work with sand filters and constructed wetlands,
and is planning a broader demonstration program.

Onsite Management Communities:
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Adams County
Allen County
Ashtabulla County
Athens County
Auglaize County
Butler County
Champaign County
Clark county
Clermont County
Clinton County
Cuyahoga County
Defiance County
Delaware County
Franklin County
Greene County
Guernsey County
Hamilton County
Highland County
Huron County
Knox County
Lorain County
Lucas County
Mahoning County
Miami County
Morrow County
Ottawa County
Preble County
Putnam County
Sandusky County
Sciotio County
Shelby County
Trumbull County
Union County
Warren County