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Alternating Drainfields
National Environmental Services Center

The septic tank soil absorption system (ST-SAS) is the most conventional onsite system installed because it works well in varied situations and is normally the least expensive. Over time and with constant use, waste byproducts can form an impermeable layer within the soil absorptin system, thus not allowing water to continue moving down through the soils. This may cause backup of sewage into the home or to the surface above the absorption area. This technological overview describes the design and siting requirements for an alternating drainfield system to avoid the problem of backup. Having two soil absorbtion systems available for dispersal of the water, flow is alternated between systems. One system operates while the other rests. To further describe the use of alternating drainfields, this technical overview includes a case study conducted at Penn State University and detailed operation and maintenance practices.

SFBLTO01DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2003)

Price: $0.00
 
Alternative Toilets
National Environmental Services Center

Low-flow, incinerating, chemical, and composting toilets are discussed in this technical overview. Basic design and operation and maintenance techniques are presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative toilet system.

SFBLTO04DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00


 
Biological Filtration
National Environmental Services Center

This technical overview focuses on bilogical filtration as an onsite wastewater treatment option. A biofilter, short for biological filter, is a secondary treatment process. Primary treatment comes after and usually involves biological treatment. Filtration is one of the more common secondary treatment processes. Filters are commonly constructed using sand, gravel, peat or synthetic materials such as, foam, fabric, textile, or plastic. Biological treatment is a natural process, where bacteria living in the wastewater or in the environment consume organic contaminants in the waste stream. The basic idea of a filter is to provide a place for the bacteria to atach to while they eat the contaminants in the effluent that passes by. Bilofilters, using foam, plastic, textile, or peat provide a high ratio of surface area to volume so the mechanism can support a large amount of bacterial growth while still allowing water to filter past. The differences in using a biofilter is mainly cost and maintenance. However, all of these systems provide effective pretreatment of residential wastewater, allowing it to be dispersed onsite, even with tight or low-impermeable soils.

SFBLTO02DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00
 
Constructed Wetlands
National Environmental Services Center

This technology overview focuses mainly on subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Basic design guidelines are detailed for individual residential applications. Operating and maintenance requirements are briefly outlined, and costs to install a wetland system are estimated for a single-family application.

SFBLTO08DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Drip and Spray Dispersal Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Drip and spray systems, sometimes referred to as irrigation methods, are an upcoming and novel solution to difficult onsite wastewater treatment needs. Drip and spray systems are intended for the ultimate dispersal of wastewater through soil treatment. This technical overview focuses on general guidelines for both drip and spray dispersal systems, while highlighting basic operation and maintenance issues that are necessary for each system in order for the system to properly function.

SFBLTO07DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00
 
Evapotranspiration Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Evapotranspiration systems (ET) and evapotranspiration absorption systems (ETA) are an upcoming and novel solution to some difficult onsite wastewater treatment needs. The drawbacks to ET/ETA systems are they can not be used everywhere, relying as they do on sufficient sunlight. This overview highlights general design considerations, operation and maintenance guidelines, and cost estimates for ET/ETA systems.

SFBLTO06DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Greywater Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Greywater contains solids, bacterial contamination, and harmful pathogens and thus must be treated. However, it has many beneficial reuse potentials. This overview discusses some of the options available to treat greywater and reuse the effluent for activities such as flushing toilets or watering lawns.

SFBLTO05DL/Booklet: 8pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00
 
Soil Absorption Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Soil absorption systems (SAS) are the conventional and long-accepted solution for many onsite system applications. Many different configurations exist for soil absorbtion systems that include: trenches, beds, serial distribution, contour trenches, and low pressure pipes. This overview discusses the use of soil for final treatment and dispersal of wastewater effluent using the configurations mentioned above in detail along with advantages and disadvantages for each. Basic operation and maintenance techniques are detailed and general cost ranges for each type of SAS is provided as well. This overview serves as an introduction for the various SAS configurations, highlighting each for the reader to compare and contrast and determine which SAS may be best for their site.

SFBLTO03DL/Booklet: 12pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00


   
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