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Assessment of Single-Stage Trickling Filter Nitrification
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water

This report compares wastewater technologies that achieve nitrification, such as trickling filters. Information was collected from the EPA regional and state offices, literature, and wastewater treatment plant personnel. This report evaluates nitrification in single-stage and separate-stage trickling filters and offers conclusions and recommendations for each. Performance data from selected treatment plants that use trickling filters are included in this report.

WWBKRE32DL/Book: 105pp. (1991)

Price: $0.00
 
Evaluation of Chemical and Biological Indicators for Source Apportionment of Phosphorus in Table Rock Lake, on the Missouri-Arkansas Border
National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

This project evaluated chemical and biological species as potential indicators of specific phosphorus source types. A GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis was used to guide selection of sampling locations in Table Rock Lake for capturing the influence of discharges from wastewater treatment plants, septic systems, and runoff from animal feeding operations. Results from the project, as well as chemical species evaluated, are included in this report.

WWBKRE56DL/Book: 159pp. (2006)

Price: $0.00


 
Guidance for Evaluation of Potential Groundwater Mounding Associated with Cluster and High-Density Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems (WSAS)
National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

Hydrologic evaluation of cluster and high-density wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS) is important because it can help ensure a site has sufficient capacity to assimilate water in excess of natural infiltration. Insufficient capacity may result in significant groundwater mounding on low hydraulic conductivity lenses or elevate the water table. This report presents a methodology for evaluation and selection of investigative techniques of site conditions and other important issues facing WSAS. A flow chart and decision support tool are also provided, as well as characterization activities and modeling approaches for each level of assessment.

WWCDRE46DL/Book: 135pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00
 
Household Water Reduction and Design Flow Allowances for On-Site Wastewater Management
Ian Gunn, The University of Auckland

This booklet shows that using water reduction fixtures and appliances in households and institutions with onsite wastewater facilities, such as septic tank/soil absorption field systems, has significant potential to reduce the effluent flow volume for treatment/disposal. Since community interest in water conservation measures has increased, the plumbing industry developed new and improved techniques for saving water. Because of these developments, regulatory authorities must evaluate onsite wastewater designs that claim significant reductions in installed system size as a result of incorporating water reduction measures. Regulatory authorities are concerned about the technical basis for reduced design-flow allowances. This booklet was developed to provide a better understanding of design-flow reduction using water conservation fixtures.

WWBLRE28DL/Booklet: 16 pp. (1997)

Price: $0.00


 
In-Vessel Composting of Municipal Wastewater Sludge
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Environmental Research Information

This manual presents lessons learned from the first 20 years of in-vessel composting, highlighting its history, performance, and operation in eight case studies. The book also includes design and operating considerations for future in-vessel and other sludge composting systems.

WWBKRE34DL/Book: 200pp. (1989)

Price: $0.00
 
Large-Scale Dry Sanitation Programs: Preliminary Observations and Recommendations from Urban Experiences in Mexico (English )
Cornell University, Human Dimensions Research Unit, Department of Natural Resources

This report provides an overview of preliminary research addressing selected, urban, large-scale dry sanitation program sites throughout Mexico. The document includes conscise information for communities, practitioners, and policy-makers concerning how dry sanitation programs benefit the delivery of public health services, environmental protection, and urban water management

WWBLRE44DL/Booklet: 19pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00


 
Linear Regression for Nonpoint Source Pollution Analyses
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water

In nonpoint source analyses, linear regression is often used to determine the extent to which the value of a water quality variable is influenced by land use or hydrologic factors. Examples of these factors include crop type, soil type, percentage of land treatment, rainfall, or stream flow. Practical applications of these regression results include the ability to predict water quality impacts due to changes in the independent variables. This fact sheet demonstrates an approach for describing the relationship between variables using regression for nonpoint source pollution analyses. The information is targeted toward people in state water quality monitoring agencies who are responsible for nonpoint source assessments and implementing watershed management.

WWBLRE30DL/Booklet: 8 pp. (1997)

Price: $0.00
 
Literature Review for Septic Siting Study: A Means of Interpreting Past Research on Septic Systems
New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Supply

This book summarizes past research studies on existing septic systems to evaluate:

• the transport of pathogens and nutrients to the groundwater, • the transport of these contaminants past 100 feet from the system, and • the reasons for the effectiveness of septic systems to provide treatment.

The book shows that a significant majority of the sites studied in the past do not meet current New York State Department of Health standards. Most of the sites show at least one contaminant was transported to groundwater. The book discusses the history of septic system research and regulation and includes eight data tables and seven appendices of sites investigated for particular contaminants.

WWBKRE38DL/Book: 122 pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00


 
Methodology to Predict Nitrogen Loading from Conventional Gravity On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems
Washington State Department of Health, Office of Community Environmental Health Programs

Nitrogen transformations occur as wastewater undergoes onsite treatment. This booklet describes factors affecting nitrogen removal that can help designers and operators maximize performance. It also presents a method to estimate total nitrogen loading that uses soil characteristics and site descriptions found on typical permit applications, improving the accuracy of predicting groundwater impact.

WWBLRE14DL/Booklet: 21 pp. (1995)

Price: $0.00
 
Performance of a Textile Filter, Polishing Sand Filter & Shallow Trench System for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater at the Northeast Regional Correction Center
University of Minnesota - Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute

An estimated half million households in Minnesota are not connected to public sewer systmes. Along with the growing use and expansion of lakeshore cabins and resorts, many have the potential to degrade surface and groundwater resources as they depend primarily on inidvidual sewage treatment systems (ISTSs) for the treatment and dispersal of domestic wastewater. The Northeast Regional Correction Center research site provided an excellent location to evalute the treatment and operational performance of a proprietary recirculating textile filter (for enhanced pathogent removal) and shallow infiltration trenches for final treatment and dispersal. This reserach study about third-party testing provides the audiences with an unbiased evaluation of the treatment and operational performance of the system.

WWBLRE48DL/Booklet: 28pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00


 
Performance of an Aerobic Treatment Unit and Drip Dispersal System for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater at the Northeast Regional Correction Center
University of Minnesota - Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute

This research paper provides an overview of the operation and performance of one brand of aerobic treatment unit and a drip dispersal system tested at the northern Minnesota research facility. An estimated half million homes in Minnesota are not connected to public sewer systems. Along with the growing use of lakeshore cabins and the conversion of cabins into year-round homes, many have the potential to degrade surface and groundwater resources as they depend primarily on individual sewage systems for the treatment and dispersal of domestic wastewater. This research paper provides a methodology that monitored discharge from the ATU every three weeks from October 1997 through January 1999. Between February 1998 and May 1998, an additional effluent sample was collected from the drip dose tank to obtain a composite sample of ATU effluent. The paper also provides performance results and full references for further information.

WWBLRE47DL/Booklet: 12pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00
 
Performance of Engineered Treatment Units and Their Effects on Biozone Formation in Soil and System Purification Efficiency
National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

Due to the high demand for land, development in areas traditionally considered unsuitable for typical wastewater treatment systems are now employing engineered treatment units. This document reports on an extensive research project carried out by the Colorado School of Mines, Environmental Science and Engineering Division to determine performance of these treatment units. The primary objectives of this research were to delineate the effluent with respect to chemicals and pathogens, determine the effects of higher effluent quality on soil clogging and determine the treatment efficiency. Effluents of differing quality from a septic tank, septic tank with textile filter and septic tank with membrane bioreactor were compared.

WWBKRE52DL/Book: 241pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Performance of Pre-engineered Modular Peat Filters for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater at the Northeast Regional Correction Center University of Minnesota - Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute

University of Minnesota - Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute

Approximately 500,000 Minnesota residences rely on the use of oniste wastewater treatment systems and more than 50 percent of these systems may be in noncompliance with state rules or are failing to the surface. A research site at Northeast Regional Correction Center near Duluth was established in 1995, involving approximately 50 private and public sector partners, to design, construct, and monitor the performance of advanced onsite treatment systmes. The NERCC research site provided an excellent location to evalute the first Puraflo peat filter system in Minnesota. Third-party monitoring provides the onsite wastewater treatment industry, local and state regulators, contractors and interested homeowners with an unbiased evaluation of year-round treatment and operational performance of this peat filter system, especially in a cold climate. This evaluation also provides data regarding the sitability of Minnesota peat as a possible substitute for the standard peat imported from Ireland.

WWBLRE49DL/Booklet: 24pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00
 
Potential Effects of Water Softener Use on Septic Tank Soil Absorption On-Site Wastewater Systems
The National Sanitaiton Foundation

This research was performed to answer concerns that water softener recharge wastes adversely affect the performance of onsite wastewater treatment systems. Study results found that water softener waste effluents caused no operational problems in anaerobic or aerobic onsite residential treatment systems. Septic tank effluents containing water softeners have significant amounts of calcium and magnesium that counteract the effect of sodium and maintain soil permeability. The studies concluded that it was better to discharge water softener waste to septic tank systems than to separate dry wells or ditches; the only disadvantage being additional water passing through the wastewater treatment system.

WWBKRE21DL/Book: 104 pp. (1996)

Price: $0.00


 
Predicting Attenuation of Viruses During Percolation in Soils 1. Probabilistic Model
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

EPA's Office of Water is currently promulgating a Ground Water Rule to ensure water supplies are safe from contamination by viruses. The Rule clarifies the conditions that define risk to public water systems from viruses. This document presents the conceptual and theoretical development of a predictive screening model for virus attenuation above aquifers.

GNBLRE55DL/Booklet: 43pp. (2002)

Price: $0.00
 
Preliminary Risk Assessment for Viruses in Municipal Sewage Sludge Applied to Land
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

This preliminary risk assessment study focuses on the probability of human infection from enteric viral pathogens in municipal sludge applied to land. The study is based on the Pathogen Risk Assessment (PRA) computer model and methodology described in Pathogen Risk Assessment for Land Application of Municipal Sludge (EPA, 1989). This study includes results from a literature review on pathogenic viruses and the results of several site-specific computer simulations running the PRA model with a wide range of values for the parameters required. Six sites were chosen to provide diversity in geographic location, topography, soil type, rainfall pattern, and temperature.

WWBKRE16DL/Book: 190 pp. (1992)

Price: $0.00


 
Quantifying Site-Scale Processes and Watershed-Scale Cumulative Effects of Decentralized Wastewater Sytems
National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

This download describes research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines, the Electric Power Research Institute, Systech Engineering Inc., the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Summit County Environmental Health Department, including participation by a stakeholder group in the study area.

The researchers goal was to enhance the quantitative understanding of site-scale processes that affect onsite wastewater systems performance and to develop modeling tools that can describe and predict individual system performance as well as the cumulative effects of multiple systems on water quality within a watershed. Research included literature reviews, laboratory experiments, field monitoring, the development and refinement of mathematical models and completion of site-scale and watershed-scale model simulations.

WWBKRE45DL/Books: 599 pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00
 
Septic Tank Nutrient Removal Project: Advanced Onsite Sewage Disposal System Demonstraiton
Ventura Regional Sanitation District

In the fall of 2000, the Ventura Regional Sanitation District in Ventura County, California, began a field test evaluating six advanced onsite systems from four manufacturers. The Septic Tank Nutrient Removal Project evaluated the systems for wastewater treatment potential and gauged the degree of nutrient removal from typical household wastewater achieved by these units. Results showed that the systems provided treatment far beyond that of a standard septic system. This book describes the systems used, the test facility, wastewater dosing, methodology, investigative materials and methods, and sampling quality assurance and control. Results are extensively documented in eight appendices, along with figures, tables, and photographs

WWBKRE39DL/Book: 93 pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00


 
Septic Tank Nutrient Removal Project: Advanced Onsite Sewage Disposal System Demonstration
Ventura Regional Sanitation District

This document describes the field test use of six-advanced Onsite Sanitary Systems (OSS). These tests measured the potential water treatment and degree of nutrient removal from a common household, and show their final outcome with extensive detail. Wastewater professionals who work with onsite systems will find this information useful.

WWBKRE43DL/Book: 86pp. (2001)

Price: $0.00
 
Summary Report: Sequencing Batch Reactors
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer

This design manual summarizes sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and compares them with conventional continuous flow systems. The manual summarizes the performance of plants operating in 1986, evaluating SBR performance for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The design process for building an SBR treatment plant is outlined along with cost estimates and comparisons for flows of 1, 5, 10, and 50 million gallons per day.

WWBLRE33DL/Booklet: 26 pp. (1986)

Price: $0.00


 
The Class V Underground Injection Control Study—Large-Capacity Septic Systems
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water

This volume focuses on large-capacity septic systems (LCSSs) that serve 20 or more individual users per day and receive, treat, and dispose of only sanitary waste. For the most part, these systems are comprised of a septic tank and subsurface fluid distribution system. For this study, though, the LCSS category includes a variety of other septic system configurations, some that are no longer commonly accepted as best management practices but are still in use in many locations across the U.S.

WWBKRE50DL/Book: 123pp. (1999)

Price: $0.00
 
Variability and Reliability of Test Center and Field Data: Definition of Proven Technology From a Regulatory Viewpoint
National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project

The New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NWIWPCC), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection , and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection banded together to formulate a project concerned with the quality and relationship of test center data and real world data for alternative onsite technologies. The goals of this research were to develop a statistical and sound scientific relationship between test center data and actual field data of installed alternative technology onsite wastewater treatment systems and to develop a decision support system to assist regulators with the evaluation of the quality and quantity of data submitted for regulatory decisions. Both goals of this project provide greater insight into where the future decision-making lies. As the onsite program and industry moves toward performance-based codes, this project will improve the baseline understanding of how to assemble, assess, and interpret new and existing data sets to maximize their benefit to the onsite program.

WWCDRE51DL/Multiple Files: 175pp. (2005)

Price: $0.00


   
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