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Home » Tech Brief Fact Sheets

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Fact Sheet: Water Conservation Measures
National Environmental Services Center

This fact sheet explains various methods of water conservation, such as metering, accounting for water consumed, and detecting and repairing leaks in the distribution system. It also stresses that information and education help people understand the importance of water conservation.

DWBLPE74DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1998)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Basic Water and Wastewater Formulas
National Environmental Services Center

Operators obtaining or maintaining their certification must be able to calculate complex formulas and conversion factors. This Tech Brief provides some basic water and wastewater formulas, various conversion factor tables, as well as some sample questions typical of those found on the certification exam.

DWFSOM103DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2008)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Biofilm Control in Distribution Systems
National Environmental Services Center

A biofilm is a surface deposit of bacteria, other microorganisms, and organic and inorganic materials that accumulate on solid surfaces when nutrients and water are present. These biofilms also form inside drinking water distribution systems and can sometimes cause a number of problems. This Tech Brief describes the factors that encourage biofilm growth and techniques for controlling them.

DWFSOM124DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2008)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Calibrating Liquid Feed Pumps
National Environmental Services Center

Liquid feeder pumps are used to inject various chemicals needed for effective water and wastewater treatment. Calibrating these pumps helps control and optimize feeding rates, which in turn provides better water quality at a lower cost. This Tech Brief discusses the calculations and the technique for calibrating liquid feed pumps.

DWFSOM105DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2008)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Chlorination
National Environmental Services Center

Chlorine is a dangerous, corrosive chemical that requires special handling, storage, and use procedures but chlorination remains the most cost-effective and reliable disinfection method available. This Tech Brief provides information about dosing rates, storage, testing, and the equipment used to safely and effectively use chlorine in a drinking water system.

DWFSOM68DL/Fact Sheet (2004)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Control de la Corrosion (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

As disinfection byproduct compliance becomes more difficult, small communities should consider using ozone as an alternative to chlorine. This Tech Brief describes the techniques used when disinfecting a community's drinking water supply with ozone.

DWFSOM144DL/Fact Sheet (2009)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Corrosion Control
National Environmental Services Center

Corrosion occurs when metals react with water and oxygen and can cause extensive problems for water systems. This Tech Brief discusses techniques for controlling corrosion, including design considerations, water quality modifications, corrosion inhibitors, cathodic protection, and coatings and linings.

DWFSOM52DL/Fact Sheet (1997)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Cross Connection and Backflow Prevention
National Environmental Services Center

Plumbing cross connections can link a potable water supply to a contamination source, causing a serious public health hazard. This Tech Brief examines the problems associated with cross connections and backflow and provides practical solutions for controlling or eliminating them.

DWFSOM58DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Cross Connection and Backflow Prevention Poster
National Environmental Services Center

Plumbing cross connections can link a potable water supply to a contamination source, causing a serious public health hazard. This poster illustrates some mechanical devices and methods used to control cross connections in commercial and industrial applications as well as for residential settings.

DWFSOM98DL/Fact Sheet (2007)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Design-Build
National Environmental Services Center

Design-build is a method of construction where the design and construction tasks are contracted out to a single contractor. This Tech Brief discusses some of the aspects of the design-build method and how it might be used for water ad wastewater projects.

DWFSOM137DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Desinfección (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

Disinfection of drinking water is the treatment process used to destroy or inactivate disease-causing micro-organisms. This Tech Brief discusses the various types of disinfection processes, the regulations governing them, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

DWFSOM149DL/Fact Sheet (2010)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Development of Low-Cost Treatment Options for Arsenic Removal in Water Treatment Facilities
National Environmental Services Center

Arsenic is a naturally-occurring element mined for industrial and agricultural applications., but can leach into water and can cause various health effects. This Tech Brief presents the results of research done by the Illinois State Water Survey and University of Illinois, using different combinations of chemical additives reduce arsenic levels in drinking water.

DWFSOM94DL/Fact Sheet (2006)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Diatomaceous Earth Filtration for Drinking Water
National Environmental Services Center

Numerous households use point-of-use/point-of-entry (POU/POE) water treatment systems systems primarily to deal with aesthetic concerns, such as taste and odor. This Tech Brief discusses POU/POE treatment options that meet Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) water quality requirements.

DWFSOM39DL/Fact Sheet (2001)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Disinfection
National Environmental Services Center

Disinfection of drinking water is the treatment process used to destroy or inactivate disease-causing micro-organisms. This Tech Brief discusses the various types of disinfection processes, the regulations governing them, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

DWFSOM50DL/Fact Sheet (1996)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Dual Water Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Because of their potential health effects and widespread occurrence, natural radionuclides-including radon, radium, and uranium-are cause for concern in your drinking water. This Tech Brief presents information about radionuclides and describes the technologies used to remove them from drinking water.

DWFSOM145DL/Fact Sheet (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Filter Backwashing
National Environmental Services Center

Backwashing a water system's filters is not only vital to the life of the filter, it's fundamental to the quality of the water coming out of the filter. This Tech Brief describes in detail the process of backwashing. Helpful diagrams and photographs are included.

DWFSOM83DL/Fact Sheet (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Filtracion (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

This is the process of removing suspended solids from water by passing the water through a permeable fabric or porous bed of materials. This Tech Brief describes filtration and compares six of the most common filter types, considering the advantages and limitations of each.

DWPSOM139DL/Fact Sheet (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Filtration
National Environmental Services Center

This is the process of removing suspended solids from water by passing the water through a permeable fabric or porous bed of materials. This Tech Brief describes filtration and compares six of the most common filter types, considering the advantages and limitations of each.

DWFSOM51DL/Fact Sheet (1996)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Fundamental Concepts of Hydraulics: Flow
National Environmental Services Center

Hydraulics is the branch of engineering that focuses on the practical problems of collecting, storing, measuring, transporting, controlling, and using water and other liquids. This Tech Brief—the second in a two-part series—provides basic information about hydraulic problems and will focus on calculating flow rates in water or wastewater conveyance (distribution and collection) systems. The first Tech Brief in this series discussed various aspects of pressure.

DWFSOM150DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2010)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Fundamental Concepts of Hydraulics: Pressure
National Environmental Services Center

Hydraulics is the branch of engineering that focuses on the practical problems of collecting, storing, measuring, transporting, controlling, and using water and other liquids. This Tech Brief is the first of two that will discuss some fundamental hydraulic problems and will focus primarily on pressure. The second will discuss flow.

DWFSOM147DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2010)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Green Building
National Environmental Services Center

"Green building" is a phrase that is used a lot, but often is not explained. This Tech Brief from the National Environmental Services Center, discusses ways to equip a building in an environmentally-friendly way. Water reuse, water saving fixtures and green roofs are a few of the topics described in this publication.

DWFSOM129DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Ion Exchange and Demineralization
National Environmental Services Center

Ion exchange and membrane processes are becoming used extensively in water and wastewater treatment. Ion exchange is primarily used for the removal of hardness ions, such as magnesium and calcium, and for water demineralization. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis, both membrane processes, remove dissolved solids from water using membranes.

DWFSOM46DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1997)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Iron and Manganese Removal
National Environmental Services Center

Iron and manganese are common in groundwater supplies used by many small water systems, but exceeding the maximum contaminant levels can result in discolored water, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. This Tech Brief describes the most common methods of removal.

DWFSOM42DL/Fact Sheet (1998)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Iron and Manganese Removal (Spanish)
National Environmental Services Center

Iron and manganese are common in groundwater supplies used by many small water systems, but exceeding the maximum contaminant levels can result in discolored water, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. This Tech Brief (Spanish Version) describes the most common methods of removal.

DWFSOM148DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2010) htt

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Jar Testing
National Environmental Services Center

Jar testing is a pilot-scale test of the treatment chemicals used in a particular water plant that simulates the coagulation/flocculation process and helps operators determine if they are using the right amount of treatment chemicals. This Tech Brief describes the how and why of jar testing. Photos and diagrams are included.

DWFSOM73DL/Fact Sheet (2005)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Leak Detection and Water Loss Control
National Environmental Services Center

Utilities can no longer tolerate inefficiencies in water distribution systems and the resulting loss of revenue associated with underground water system leakage. This Tech Brief describes the methods used to detect, locate, and correct leaks.

DWFSOM38DL/Fact Sheet (2001)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Leak Detection and Water Loss Control (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

Water leaks can break a small water system's budget. This Tech Brief describes the major causes of leaks, details how to coordinate leak detection with other water utility activities and discusses the benefits of detection and repair.

DWFSOM138DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Lime Softening
National Environmental Services Center

Hard water causes scaling problems in water heaters, and soap does not lather well in hard water. This Tech Brief presents the techniques of using lime to improve your community's water quality.

DWFSOM41DL/Fact Sheet (1998)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Line Pigging
National Environmental Services Center

Line pigging is an internal pipe-cleaning process used to remove biofilms or other foreign matter from the inside of water pipes to renew the flow rates and reduce pumping pressures. This Tech Brief discusses some of the techniques and processes used in cleaning waterlines in distributions systems.

DWFSOM96DL/Fact Sheet (2007)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Locating Distribution Lines
National Environmental Services Center

Finding water distribution lines can be a daunting task. This Tech Brief examines as-built drawings, locating devices, geophones, and tapping the expertise of previous employees as useful methods for locating distribution lines.

DWFSOM85DL/Fact Sheet (2006)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Membrane Filtration
National Environmental Services Center

A semipermeable membrane is a thin layer of material capable of separating substances when a driving force is applied across the membrane often used to remove bacteria and other microorganisms, particulates, and natural organic material, which can impart color, taste, and odors to water. This Tech Brief describes various all types of semipermeable membrane technologies including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis.

DWFSOM43DL/Fact Sheet (1999)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Oil and Gas Extraction and Source Water Protection
National Environmental Services Center

This Tech Brief discusses how gas extraction can affect source water. The technical brief also discusses hydraulic fracturing and wastewater generated from the process.

DWFSOM154DL/Fact Sheet: 6 pp. (2011)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: On-Site Generation of Disinfectants
National Environmental Services Center

Onsite generators (OSGs) produce chlorine when a solution of sodium chloride is passed through an electrolytic cell and electricity is added. Many communities are turning to OSGs for their water distribution systems due to better safety, high quality disinfection, greener operations and economic savings. This Tech Brief explains how onsite generators work and safety concerns associated with their use.

DWFSOM133DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Organic Removal
National Environmental Services Center

Natural organic materials and synthetic organic chemicals can cause taste, odor, or color problems in a community's drinking water. This Tech Brief discusses the technologies most suited for organic contaminant removal in drinking water systems.

DWFSOM47DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1997)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Ozone
National Environmental Services Center

As disinfection byproduct compliance becomes more difficult, small communities should consider using ozone as an alternative to chlorine. This Tech Brief describes the techniques used when disinfecting a community's drinking water supply with ozone.

DWFSOM44DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1999)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Package Plants
National Environmental Services Center

Small communities that face financial problems purchasing and maintaining conventional drinking water treatment systems often opt to install a package plant, an alternative to conventional in-ground treatment technology. This Tech Brief describes the advantages of package plants, how to choose the best technology, and operation and maintenance considerations of these types of treatment systems.

DWFSOM48DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1997)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry Systems (POU/POE)
National Environmental Services Center

Numerous households use point-of-use/point-of-entry (POU/POE) water treatment systems systems primarily to deal with aesthetic concerns, such as taste and odor. This Tech Brief discusses POU/POE treatment options that meet Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) water quality requirements.

DWFSOM31DL/Fact Sheet (2003)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Preventing Well Contamination
National Environmental Services Center

About 42 million Americans use a drilled well for their drinking water. This Tech Brief presents tips about how to properly site a well and includes information about well design; material selection, such as screens and filter packs; appropriate well sealing methods; and using pitless adaptors.

DWFSOM57DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2003)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Pumps
National Environmental Services Center

From start to finish, pumps play an important role in all water distribution systems. They are used to transfer raw water to the treatment plant; they supply water to sections of a distribution system; they add appropriate chemical doses during treatment; and they transfer sludge from settling chambers for further treatment and disposal. This Tech Brief describes the most common pumps, how they work and how to keep them working efficiently.

DWFSOM56DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2003)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Quality Control in Construction Projects
National Environmental Services Center

Utility systems need infrastructure to last as long as possible. One way to ensure longevity is through quality control. This Tech Brief provides helpful tips and suggestions on how to get the best quality out of your construction project.

DWFSOM81DL/Fact Sheet (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Radionuclides
National Environmental Services Center

Because of their potential health effects and widespread occurrence, natural radionuclides—including radon, radium, and uranium—are cause for concern in your drinking water. This Tech Brief presents information about radionuclides and describes the technologies used to remove them from drinking water.

DWFSOM45DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2000)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Reading Centrifugal Pump Curves
National Environmental Services Center

Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to selecting the proper pump as well as ensuring reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief explains how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, examines how pump curves can provide data about the pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower.

DWFSOM155DL/Fact Sheet: 5pp. (2013)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Repairing Distribution Line Breaks
National Environmental Services Center

Occasionally, water systems encounter situations where they must repair distribution system pipes. This Tech Brief presents things to consider before beginning a repair and replacement project.

DWFSOM60DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2004)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Reservoirs, Towers, and Tanks - Drinking Water Storage Facilities
National Environmental Services Center

A drinking water system uses reservoirs, towers, and tanks to store the water after treatment and before distribution. This Tech Brief describes the special considerations that apply to these special storage devices including capacity, location shape, and construction materials.

DWFSOM15DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2002)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Reservoirs, Towers, and Tanks; Drinking Water Storage Facilities (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

A drinking water system uses reservoirs, towers, and tanks to store the water after treatment and before distribution. This Tech Brief describes the special considerations that apply to these special storage devices including capacity, location shape, and construction materials.

DWFSOM140DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Sanitary Surveys
National Environmental Services Center

A sanitary survey is an inspection of a water system, including the water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance. This Tech Brief describes all the components of a sanitary survey and offers tips about what to do before, during, and after a survey.

DWFSOM74DL/Fact Sheet (2005)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Simultaneous Compliance with Drinking Water Regulations
National Environmental Services Center

Certain U.S. drinking water regulations have the potential to conflict with each other. This means that small system operators cannot simply comply with these mandates individually, but must consider how changing their treatment process to meet one rule might affect compliance with other rules. This Tech Brief offers information and strategies to comply with those regulations that are most likely to conflict with one another.

DWFSOM95DL/Fact Sheet (2007)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Slow Sand Filtration
National Environmental Services Center

First used in the U.S. in 1872, slow sand filters are the oldest type of municipal water filtration and remain a promising treatment method for small systems with low turbidity or algae-containing source waters. This Tech Brief discusses the advantages and limitations as well as the operation and maintenance considerations of slow sand filters. Performance data and diagrams are included.

DWFSOM40DL/Fact Sheet (2000)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Slow Sand Filtration (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

First used in the U.S. in 1872, slow sand filters are the oldest type of municipal water filtration and remain a promising treatment method for small systems with low turbidity or algae-containing source waters. This Tech Brief discusses the advantages and limitations as well as the operation and maintenance considerations of slow sand filters. Performance data and diagrams are included.

DWFSOM143DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Source Water Protection
National Environmental Services Center

Because source water protection means cleaner water that needs less treatment, drinking water systems should put source water protection at the top of their "to do" lists. Whether your source water is surface or groundwater, all drinking water sources are vulnerable to a variety of contaminants from a variety of activities. This Tech Brief discusses some possible contamination sources and feasible ways to address them.

DWFSOM125DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
National Environmental Services Center

System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are considered reliable methods of managing information from remote locations, relaying data to a central location about such parameters as pump control, flows, tank levels, and pressures, and water quality characteristics. This Tech Brief describes the various components of a SCADA for a small water treatment system and provides design considerations to obtain the greatest efficiency.

DWFSOM20DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2002)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Taste and Odor Control
National Environmental Services Center

Complaints about the taste and smell of drinking water are all too common for many systems. This Tech Brief examines common taste and odor problems and provides techniques for dealing with them in the treatment plant.

DWFSOM88DL/Fact Sheet (2006)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Turbidity Control
National Environmental Services Center

Complaints about the taste and smell of drinking water are all too common for many systems. This Tech Brief examines common taste and odor problems and provides techniques for dealing with them in the treatment plant.

DWFSOM89DL/Fact Sheet (2006)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Ultraviolet Disinfection
National Environmental Services Center

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection involves exposing contaminated water to radiation from UV light. This Tech Brief gives advantages and limitations to using a UV light system and outlines the process description, monitoring, and operation requirements of the system.

DWFSOM53DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2000)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Valve Exercising
National Environmental Services Center

Every water system has valves--devices that regulate, stop, or start the flow of water in the distribution lines, but valves can become inoperable due to lack of use. This Tech Brief describes an exercise program (where all the valves are located and opened and closed routinely) to keep them working reliably.

DWFSOM97DL/Fact Sheet (2007)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Valves
National Environmental Services Center

Valves direct, start, stop, mix, or regulate the flow, pressure, or temperature of a fluid. Many types of valves exist. This Tech Brief examines the most common types of valves, problems that may be encountered-such as captivation, flashing, choked flow, and water hammer effects-operation and maintenance requirements, and safety issues with respect to security.

DWFSOM21DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2002)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Water Conservation (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

Clean, potable water is a finite resource, and in many areas, future water supplies are uncertain. This Tech Brief considers the role of water conservation as an integral part of long-term resource planning and describes the steps that small water systems can take to reduce water loss and to encourage their customers to conserve.

DWFSOM142DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Water Efficiency and Conservation
National Environmental Services Center

This Tech Brief discuses water efficiency and conservation. The Tech Brief was published in the Spring/Summer 2011, issue of On Tap magazine.

DWFSOM153DL/Fact Sheet: 4pp. (2011)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Water Hammer
National Environmental Services Center

Water hammer is the momentary increase in pressure that occurs in a water system when there is a sudden change of direction or velocity of the water. These pressure fluctuations can be severe enough to rupture a water main. This Tech Brief discusses water hammer, investigating its causes, and finding practical solutions, such as valves, pumps, surge tanks, and air chambers. Sources for more information are included.

DWFSOM27DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2003)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Water Hammer (Spanish Version)
National Environmental Services Center

Water hammer is the momentary increase in pressure that occurs in a water system when there is a sudden change of direction or velocity of the water and these pressure fluctuations can be severe enough to rupture a water main. This Tech Brief offers some practical design solutions to this potential problem.

DWFSOM141DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2009)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Water Meters
National Environmental Services Center

The best way for a water utility to measure or account for the water produced and then sold is by using water meters. This Tech Brief explores the different types of meters, their applications, and their importance for a water utility business.

DWFSOM67DL/Fact Sheet (2004)

Price: $0.00
 
Tech Brief: Water Quality in Distribution Systems
National Environmental Services Center

A variety of factors can degrade water quality as it travels through a distribution system. Taste and odor problems can occur, but research also suggests that degraded water quality increases the risk of gastrointestinal illnesses. This Tech Brief discusses several ways water quality can be compromised, including structural and operational issues, and suggests methods to retain the high quality water has when it leaves the plant.

DWFSOM25DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (2002)

Price: $0.00


 
Tech Brief: Water Treatment Plant Residuals Management
National Environmental Services Center

Water treatment plants produce a wide variety of waste products as well as safe drinking water. This Tech Brief examines residual categories, major treatment processes, and the regulations that govern management of residuals.

DWFSOM49DL/Fact Sheet: 4 pp. (1998)

Price: $0.00
 
Treatment Technologies for Small Drinking Water Systems
National Environmental Services Center

Small systems still face difficulties in meeting the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) because many technologies available to large systems may be too expensive or complicated for small systems to consider. This double-sided poster presents the technologies especially suitable for the compliance of small water systems when addressing disinfection, filtration, inorganic and organic contaminants, synthetic organic compounds, and radionuclides.

DWPSOM37DL/Poster: 2 pp. (1999)

Price: $0.00


   
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